asn1tools


Nameasn1tools JSON
Version 0.155.3 PyPI version JSON
download
home_pagehttps://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools
SummaryASN.1 parsing, encoding and decoding.
upload_time2021-01-14 17:07:58
maintainer
docs_urlNone
authorErik Moqvist
requires_python
licenseMIT
keywords asn.1 asn1
VCS
bugtrack_url
requirements No requirements were recorded.
Travis-CI No Travis.
coveralls test coverage No coveralls.
            |coverage|_
|codecov|_
|nala|_

About
=====

A Python package for `ASN.1`_ parsing, encoding and decoding.

This project is *under development* and does only support a subset
of the ASN.1 specification syntax.

Supported codecs:

- Basic Encoding Rules (BER)
- Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)
- Generic String Encoding Rules (GSER)
- JSON Encoding Rules (JER)
- Basic Octet Encoding Rules (OER)
- Aligned Packed Encoding Rules (PER)
- Unaligned Packed Encoding Rules (UPER)
- XML Encoding Rules (XER)

Miscellaneous features:

- `C` source code generator for OER and UPER (with some limitations).

Project homepage: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools

Documentation: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.org/en/latest

Known limitations
=================

- The ``CLASS`` keyword (X.681) and its friends are not yet supported.

- Parametrization (X.683) is not yet supported.

- The ``EMBEDDED PDV`` type is not yet supported.

- The ``ANY`` and ``ANY DEFINED BY`` types are not supported. They
  were removed from the ASN.1 standard 1994.

- ``WITH COMPONENT`` and ``WITH COMPONENTS`` constraints are ignored,
  except for OER ``REAL``.

- The ``DURATION`` type is not yet supported.

Installation
============

.. code-block:: python

    pip install asn1tools

Example Usage
=============

This is an example ASN.1 specification defining the messages of a
fictitious Foo protocol (based on the FooProtocol on Wikipedia).

.. code-block:: text

   Foo DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN

       Question ::= SEQUENCE {
           id        INTEGER,
           question  IA5String
       }

       Answer ::= SEQUENCE {
           id        INTEGER,
           answer    BOOLEAN
       }

   END

Scripting
---------

`Compile`_ the ASN.1 specification, and `encode`_ and `decode`_ a
question using the default codec (BER).

.. code-block:: python

   >>> import asn1tools
   >>> foo = asn1tools.compile_files('tests/files/foo.asn')
   >>> encoded = foo.encode('Question', {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'})
   >>> encoded
   bytearray(b'0\x0e\x02\x01\x01\x16\x09Is 1+1=3?')
   >>> foo.decode('Question', encoded)
   {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'}

The same ASN.1 specification, but using the PER codec.

.. code-block:: python

   >>> import asn1tools
   >>> foo = asn1tools.compile_files('tests/files/foo.asn', 'per')
   >>> encoded = foo.encode('Question', {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'})
   >>> encoded
   bytearray(b'\x01\x01\tIs 1+1=3?')
   >>> foo.decode('Question', encoded)
   {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'}

See the `examples`_ folder for additional examples.

Command line tool
-----------------

The shell subcommand
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Use the command line shell to convert data between given formats. The
default input codec is BER and output codec is GSER (produces human
readable text).

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools shell

   Welcome to the asn1tools shell!

   $ help
   Commands:
     compile
     convert
     exit
     help
   $ compile tests/files/foo.asn
   $ convert Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f
   question Question ::= {
       id 1,
       question "Is 1+1=3?"
   }
   $ compile --output-codec xer tests/files/foo.asn
   $ convert Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f
   <Question>
       <id>1</id>
       <question>Is 1+1=3?</question>
   </Question>
   $ compile -o uper tests/files/foo.asn
   $ convert Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f
   01010993cd03156c5eb37e
   $ exit
   >

The convert subcommand
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Convert given encoded Question from BER to GSER (produces human
readable text).

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools convert tests/files/foo.asn Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f
   question Question ::= {
       id 1,
       question "Is 1+1=3?"
   }
   >

Convert given encoded Question from UPER to XER (xml).

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools convert -i uper -o xer tests/files/foo.asn Question 01010993cd03156c5eb37e
   <Question>
       <id>1</id>
       <question>Is 1+1=3?</question>
   </Question>
   >

Convert given encoded Question from UPER to JER (json).

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools convert -i uper -o jer tests/files/foo.asn Question 01010993cd03156c5eb37e
   {
       "id": 1,
       "question": "Is 1+1=3?"
   }
   >

Continuously convert encoded Questions read from standard input. Any
line that cannot be converted is printed as is, in this example the
dates.

.. code-block:: text

   > cat encoded.txt
   2018-02-24 11:22:09
   300e0201011609497320312b313d333f
   2018-02-24 11:24:15
   300e0201021609497320322b323d353f
   > cat encoded.txt | asn1tools convert tests/files/foo.asn Question -
   2018-02-24 11:22:09
   question Question ::= {
       id 1,
       question "Is 1+1=3?"
   }
   2018-02-24 11:24:15
   question Question ::= {
       id 2,
       question "Is 2+2=5?"
   }
   >

The convert subcommand with a cache
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Convert given encoded PCCH-Message from UPER to GSER with the
``--cache-dir`` option set to ``my_cache``. Using a cache
significantly reduces the command execution time after the first call.

.. code-block:: text

   > time asn1tools convert --cache-dir my_cache -i uper tests/files/3gpp/rrc_8_6_0.asn PCCH-Message 28
   pcch-message PCCH-Message ::= {
       message c1 : paging : {
           systemInfoModification true,
           nonCriticalExtension {
           }
       }
   }

   real    0m2.090s
   user    0m1.977s
   sys     0m0.032s
   > time asn1tools convert --cache-dir my_cache -i uper tests/files/3gpp/rrc_8_6_0.asn PCCH-Message 28
   pcch-message PCCH-Message ::= {
       message c1 : paging : {
           systemInfoModification true,
           nonCriticalExtension {
           }
       }
   }

   real    0m0.276s
   user    0m0.197s
   sys     0m0.026s
   >

The parse subcommand
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Parse given ASN.1 specification and write it as a Python dictionary to
given file. Use the created file to convert given encoded Question
from BER to GSER (produces human readable text). The conversion is
significantly faster than passing .asn-file(s) to the convert
subcommand, especially for larger ASN.1 specifications.

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools parse tests/files/foo.asn foo.py
   > asn1tools convert foo.py Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f
   question Question ::= {
       id 1,
       question "Is 1+1=3?"
   }
   >

The generate C source subcommand
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Generate OER or UPER C source code from an ASN.1 specification.

No dynamic memory is used in the generated code. To achieve this all
types in the ASN.1 specification must have a known maximum size,
i.e. ``INTEGER (0..7)``, ``OCTET STRING (SIZE(12))``, etc.

Below is an example generating OER C source code from
`tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn`_.

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools generate_c_source --namespace oer tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn
   Successfully generated oer.h and oer.c.

The same as above, but generate UPER C source code instead of OER.

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools generate_c_source --codec uper --namespace uper tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn
   Successfully generated uper.h and uper.c.

The same as the first example, but also generate fuzz testing C source
code for `libFuzzer`_.

.. code-block:: text

   > asn1tools generate_c_source --namespace oer --generate-fuzzer tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn
   Successfully generated oer.h and oer.c.
   Successfully generated oer_fuzzer.c and oer_fuzzer.mk.

   Run "make -f oer_fuzzer.mk" to build and run the fuzzer. Requires a
   recent version of clang.

See `oer.h`_, `oer.c`_, `uper.h`_, `uper.c`_, `oer_fuzzer.c`_ and
`oer_fuzzer.mk`_ for the contents of the generated files.

Limitations by design:

- Only the types ``BOOLEAN``, ``INTEGER``, ``NULL``, ``OCTET STRING``,
  ``BIT STRING``, ``ENUMERATED``, ``SEQUENCE``, ``SEQUENCE OF``, and ``CHOICE``
  are supported. The OER generator also supports ``REAL``.

- All types must have a known maximum size, i.e. ``INTEGER (0..7)``,
  ``OCTET STRING (SIZE(12))``.

- ``INTEGER`` must be 64 bits or less.

- ``REAL`` must be IEEE 754 binary32 or binary64. binary32 is
  generated as ``float`` and binary64 as ``double``.

- Recursive types are not supported.

Known limitations:

- Extension additions (``...``) are only supported in the OER generator.
  See `compact_extensions_uper`_ for how to make UPER ``CHOICE`` and
  ``SEQUENCE`` extendable without using ``...``.

- Named numbers in ``ENUMERATED`` are not yet supported.

Other OER and/or UPER C code generators:

- https://github.com/vlm/asn1c

- https://github.com/ttsiodras/asn1scc

See the `benchmark example`_ for a comparison of `asn1c`, `asn1scc`
and `asn1tools`.

Contributing
============

#. Fork the repository.

#. Install prerequisites.

   .. code-block:: text

      pip install -r requirements.txt

#. Implement the new feature or bug fix.

#. Implement test case(s) to ensure that future changes do not break
   legacy.

#. Run the tests.

   .. code-block:: text

      make test

#. Create a pull request.

Specifications
==============

ASN.1 specifications released by ITU and IETF.

General
-------

- `X.680: Specification of basic notation
  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.680-0207.pdf>`_

- `X.681: Information object specification
  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.681-0207.pdf>`_

- `X.682: Constraint specification
  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.682-0207.pdf>`_

- `X.683: Parameterization of ASN.1 specifications
  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.683-0207.pdf>`_

Encodings
---------

- `X.690: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical
  Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)
  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.690-0207.pdf>`_

- `X.691: Specification of Packed Encoding Rules (PER)
  <https://www.itu.int/rec/dologin_pub.asp?lang=e&id=T-REC-X.691-201508-I!!PDF-E&type=items>`_

- `X.693: XML Encoding Rules (XER)
  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.693-0112.pdf>`_

- `X.696: Specification of Octet Encoding Rules (OER)
  <https://www.itu.int/rec/dologin_pub.asp?lang=e&id=T-REC-X.696-201508-I!!PDF-E&type=items>`_

- `RFC 3641: Generic String Encoding Rules (GSER) for ASN.1
  <https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3641>`_

- `Overview of the JSON Encoding Rules (JER)
  <http://www.oss.com/asn1/resources/asn1-papers/Overview_of_JER.pdf>`_

.. |coverage| image:: https://coveralls.io/repos/github/eerimoq/asn1tools/badge.svg?branch=master
.. _coverage: https://coveralls.io/github/eerimoq/asn1tools

.. |codecov| image:: https://codecov.io/gh/eerimoq/asn1tools/branch/master/graph/badge.svg
.. _codecov: https://codecov.io/gh/eerimoq/asn1tools

.. |nala| image:: https://img.shields.io/badge/nala-test-blue.svg
.. _nala: https://github.com/eerimoq/nala

.. _ASN.1: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_Syntax_Notation_One

.. _Compile: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#asn1tools.compile_files
.. _encode: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#asn1tools.compiler.Specification.encode
.. _decode: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#asn1tools.compiler.Specification.decode
.. _examples: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/tree/master/examples

.. _tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn

.. _oer.h: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer.h

.. _oer.c: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer.c

.. _uper.h: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/uper.h

.. _uper.c: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/uper.c

.. _oer_fuzzer.c: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer_fuzzer.c

.. _oer_fuzzer.mk: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer_fuzzer.mk

.. _libFuzzer: https://llvm.org/docs/LibFuzzer.html

.. _benchmark example: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/examples/benchmarks/c_source

.. _compact_extensions_uper: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/examples/compact_extensions_uper
            

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    "description": "|coverage|_\n|codecov|_\n|nala|_\n\nAbout\n=====\n\nA Python package for `ASN.1`_ parsing, encoding and decoding.\n\nThis project is *under development* and does only support a subset\nof the ASN.1 specification syntax.\n\nSupported codecs:\n\n- Basic Encoding Rules (BER)\n- Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)\n- Generic String Encoding Rules (GSER)\n- JSON Encoding Rules (JER)\n- Basic Octet Encoding Rules (OER)\n- Aligned Packed Encoding Rules (PER)\n- Unaligned Packed Encoding Rules (UPER)\n- XML Encoding Rules (XER)\n\nMiscellaneous features:\n\n- `C` source code generator for OER and UPER (with some limitations).\n\nProject homepage: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools\n\nDocumentation: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.org/en/latest\n\nKnown limitations\n=================\n\n- The ``CLASS`` keyword (X.681) and its friends are not yet supported.\n\n- Parametrization (X.683) is not yet supported.\n\n- The ``EMBEDDED PDV`` type is not yet supported.\n\n- The ``ANY`` and ``ANY DEFINED BY`` types are not supported. They\n  were removed from the ASN.1 standard 1994.\n\n- ``WITH COMPONENT`` and ``WITH COMPONENTS`` constraints are ignored,\n  except for OER ``REAL``.\n\n- The ``DURATION`` type is not yet supported.\n\nInstallation\n============\n\n.. code-block:: python\n\n    pip install asn1tools\n\nExample Usage\n=============\n\nThis is an example ASN.1 specification defining the messages of a\nfictitious Foo protocol (based on the FooProtocol on Wikipedia).\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   Foo DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN\n\n       Question ::= SEQUENCE {\n           id        INTEGER,\n           question  IA5String\n       }\n\n       Answer ::= SEQUENCE {\n           id        INTEGER,\n           answer    BOOLEAN\n       }\n\n   END\n\nScripting\n---------\n\n`Compile`_ the ASN.1 specification, and `encode`_ and `decode`_ a\nquestion using the default codec (BER).\n\n.. code-block:: python\n\n   >>> import asn1tools\n   >>> foo = asn1tools.compile_files('tests/files/foo.asn')\n   >>> encoded = foo.encode('Question', {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'})\n   >>> encoded\n   bytearray(b'0\\x0e\\x02\\x01\\x01\\x16\\x09Is 1+1=3?')\n   >>> foo.decode('Question', encoded)\n   {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'}\n\nThe same ASN.1 specification, but using the PER codec.\n\n.. code-block:: python\n\n   >>> import asn1tools\n   >>> foo = asn1tools.compile_files('tests/files/foo.asn', 'per')\n   >>> encoded = foo.encode('Question', {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'})\n   >>> encoded\n   bytearray(b'\\x01\\x01\\tIs 1+1=3?')\n   >>> foo.decode('Question', encoded)\n   {'id': 1, 'question': 'Is 1+1=3?'}\n\nSee the `examples`_ folder for additional examples.\n\nCommand line tool\n-----------------\n\nThe shell subcommand\n^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\n\nUse the command line shell to convert data between given formats. The\ndefault input codec is BER and output codec is GSER (produces human\nreadable text).\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools shell\n\n   Welcome to the asn1tools shell!\n\n   $ help\n   Commands:\n     compile\n     convert\n     exit\n     help\n   $ compile tests/files/foo.asn\n   $ convert Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f\n   question Question ::= {\n       id 1,\n       question \"Is 1+1=3?\"\n   }\n   $ compile --output-codec xer tests/files/foo.asn\n   $ convert Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f\n   <Question>\n       <id>1</id>\n       <question>Is 1+1=3?</question>\n   </Question>\n   $ compile -o uper tests/files/foo.asn\n   $ convert Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f\n   01010993cd03156c5eb37e\n   $ exit\n   >\n\nThe convert subcommand\n^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\n\nConvert given encoded Question from BER to GSER (produces human\nreadable text).\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools convert tests/files/foo.asn Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f\n   question Question ::= {\n       id 1,\n       question \"Is 1+1=3?\"\n   }\n   >\n\nConvert given encoded Question from UPER to XER (xml).\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools convert -i uper -o xer tests/files/foo.asn Question 01010993cd03156c5eb37e\n   <Question>\n       <id>1</id>\n       <question>Is 1+1=3?</question>\n   </Question>\n   >\n\nConvert given encoded Question from UPER to JER (json).\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools convert -i uper -o jer tests/files/foo.asn Question 01010993cd03156c5eb37e\n   {\n       \"id\": 1,\n       \"question\": \"Is 1+1=3?\"\n   }\n   >\n\nContinuously convert encoded Questions read from standard input. Any\nline that cannot be converted is printed as is, in this example the\ndates.\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > cat encoded.txt\n   2018-02-24 11:22:09\n   300e0201011609497320312b313d333f\n   2018-02-24 11:24:15\n   300e0201021609497320322b323d353f\n   > cat encoded.txt | asn1tools convert tests/files/foo.asn Question -\n   2018-02-24 11:22:09\n   question Question ::= {\n       id 1,\n       question \"Is 1+1=3?\"\n   }\n   2018-02-24 11:24:15\n   question Question ::= {\n       id 2,\n       question \"Is 2+2=5?\"\n   }\n   >\n\nThe convert subcommand with a cache\n^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\n\nConvert given encoded PCCH-Message from UPER to GSER with the\n``--cache-dir`` option set to ``my_cache``. Using a cache\nsignificantly reduces the command execution time after the first call.\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > time asn1tools convert --cache-dir my_cache -i uper tests/files/3gpp/rrc_8_6_0.asn PCCH-Message 28\n   pcch-message PCCH-Message ::= {\n       message c1 : paging : {\n           systemInfoModification true,\n           nonCriticalExtension {\n           }\n       }\n   }\n\n   real    0m2.090s\n   user    0m1.977s\n   sys     0m0.032s\n   > time asn1tools convert --cache-dir my_cache -i uper tests/files/3gpp/rrc_8_6_0.asn PCCH-Message 28\n   pcch-message PCCH-Message ::= {\n       message c1 : paging : {\n           systemInfoModification true,\n           nonCriticalExtension {\n           }\n       }\n   }\n\n   real    0m0.276s\n   user    0m0.197s\n   sys     0m0.026s\n   >\n\nThe parse subcommand\n^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\n\nParse given ASN.1 specification and write it as a Python dictionary to\ngiven file. Use the created file to convert given encoded Question\nfrom BER to GSER (produces human readable text). The conversion is\nsignificantly faster than passing .asn-file(s) to the convert\nsubcommand, especially for larger ASN.1 specifications.\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools parse tests/files/foo.asn foo.py\n   > asn1tools convert foo.py Question 300e0201011609497320312b313d333f\n   question Question ::= {\n       id 1,\n       question \"Is 1+1=3?\"\n   }\n   >\n\nThe generate C source subcommand\n^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^\n\nGenerate OER or UPER C source code from an ASN.1 specification.\n\nNo dynamic memory is used in the generated code. To achieve this all\ntypes in the ASN.1 specification must have a known maximum size,\ni.e. ``INTEGER (0..7)``, ``OCTET STRING (SIZE(12))``, etc.\n\nBelow is an example generating OER C source code from\n`tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn`_.\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools generate_c_source --namespace oer tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn\n   Successfully generated oer.h and oer.c.\n\nThe same as above, but generate UPER C source code instead of OER.\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools generate_c_source --codec uper --namespace uper tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn\n   Successfully generated uper.h and uper.c.\n\nThe same as the first example, but also generate fuzz testing C source\ncode for `libFuzzer`_.\n\n.. code-block:: text\n\n   > asn1tools generate_c_source --namespace oer --generate-fuzzer tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn\n   Successfully generated oer.h and oer.c.\n   Successfully generated oer_fuzzer.c and oer_fuzzer.mk.\n\n   Run \"make -f oer_fuzzer.mk\" to build and run the fuzzer. Requires a\n   recent version of clang.\n\nSee `oer.h`_, `oer.c`_, `uper.h`_, `uper.c`_, `oer_fuzzer.c`_ and\n`oer_fuzzer.mk`_ for the contents of the generated files.\n\nLimitations by design:\n\n- Only the types ``BOOLEAN``, ``INTEGER``, ``NULL``, ``OCTET STRING``,\n  ``BIT STRING``, ``ENUMERATED``, ``SEQUENCE``, ``SEQUENCE OF``, and ``CHOICE``\n  are supported. The OER generator also supports ``REAL``.\n\n- All types must have a known maximum size, i.e. ``INTEGER (0..7)``,\n  ``OCTET STRING (SIZE(12))``.\n\n- ``INTEGER`` must be 64 bits or less.\n\n- ``REAL`` must be IEEE 754 binary32 or binary64. binary32 is\n  generated as ``float`` and binary64 as ``double``.\n\n- Recursive types are not supported.\n\nKnown limitations:\n\n- Extension additions (``...``) are only supported in the OER generator.\n  See `compact_extensions_uper`_ for how to make UPER ``CHOICE`` and\n  ``SEQUENCE`` extendable without using ``...``.\n\n- Named numbers in ``ENUMERATED`` are not yet supported.\n\nOther OER and/or UPER C code generators:\n\n- https://github.com/vlm/asn1c\n\n- https://github.com/ttsiodras/asn1scc\n\nSee the `benchmark example`_ for a comparison of `asn1c`, `asn1scc`\nand `asn1tools`.\n\nContributing\n============\n\n#. Fork the repository.\n\n#. Install prerequisites.\n\n   .. code-block:: text\n\n      pip install -r requirements.txt\n\n#. Implement the new feature or bug fix.\n\n#. Implement test case(s) to ensure that future changes do not break\n   legacy.\n\n#. Run the tests.\n\n   .. code-block:: text\n\n      make test\n\n#. Create a pull request.\n\nSpecifications\n==============\n\nASN.1 specifications released by ITU and IETF.\n\nGeneral\n-------\n\n- `X.680: Specification of basic notation\n  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.680-0207.pdf>`_\n\n- `X.681: Information object specification\n  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.681-0207.pdf>`_\n\n- `X.682: Constraint specification\n  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.682-0207.pdf>`_\n\n- `X.683: Parameterization of ASN.1 specifications\n  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.683-0207.pdf>`_\n\nEncodings\n---------\n\n- `X.690: Specification of Basic Encoding Rules (BER), Canonical\n  Encoding Rules (CER) and Distinguished Encoding Rules (DER)\n  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.690-0207.pdf>`_\n\n- `X.691: Specification of Packed Encoding Rules (PER)\n  <https://www.itu.int/rec/dologin_pub.asp?lang=e&id=T-REC-X.691-201508-I!!PDF-E&type=items>`_\n\n- `X.693: XML Encoding Rules (XER)\n  <https://www.itu.int/ITU-T/studygroups/com17/languages/X.693-0112.pdf>`_\n\n- `X.696: Specification of Octet Encoding Rules (OER)\n  <https://www.itu.int/rec/dologin_pub.asp?lang=e&id=T-REC-X.696-201508-I!!PDF-E&type=items>`_\n\n- `RFC 3641: Generic String Encoding Rules (GSER) for ASN.1\n  <https://tools.ietf.org/html/rfc3641>`_\n\n- `Overview of the JSON Encoding Rules (JER)\n  <http://www.oss.com/asn1/resources/asn1-papers/Overview_of_JER.pdf>`_\n\n.. |coverage| image:: https://coveralls.io/repos/github/eerimoq/asn1tools/badge.svg?branch=master\n.. _coverage: https://coveralls.io/github/eerimoq/asn1tools\n\n.. |codecov| image:: https://codecov.io/gh/eerimoq/asn1tools/branch/master/graph/badge.svg\n.. _codecov: https://codecov.io/gh/eerimoq/asn1tools\n\n.. |nala| image:: https://img.shields.io/badge/nala-test-blue.svg\n.. _nala: https://github.com/eerimoq/nala\n\n.. _ASN.1: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abstract_Syntax_Notation_One\n\n.. _Compile: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#asn1tools.compile_files\n.. _encode: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#asn1tools.compiler.Specification.encode\n.. _decode: http://asn1tools.readthedocs.io/en/latest/#asn1tools.compiler.Specification.decode\n.. _examples: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/tree/master/examples\n\n.. _tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/c_source.asn\n\n.. _oer.h: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer.h\n\n.. _oer.c: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer.c\n\n.. _uper.h: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/uper.h\n\n.. _uper.c: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/uper.c\n\n.. _oer_fuzzer.c: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer_fuzzer.c\n\n.. _oer_fuzzer.mk: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/tests/files/c_source/oer_fuzzer.mk\n\n.. _libFuzzer: https://llvm.org/docs/LibFuzzer.html\n\n.. _benchmark example: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/examples/benchmarks/c_source\n\n.. _compact_extensions_uper: https://github.com/eerimoq/asn1tools/blob/master/examples/compact_extensions_uper",
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